学习啦 初中英语 初二英语下册所有必考知识点大放送(新人教版)

初二英语下册所有必考知识点大放送(新人教版)

Unit1 what’ s the matter?

1. It’s +形容词 + for sb. + to do sth.做某事对某人来说是…的。

It’s important to do sth. 做某事很重要。

It’s important for me to eat a balanced diet.平衡饮食对我来说是很重要的.

It’s easy to do sth. 做某事是容易的。

It’s easy for us to find out the answer.找出答案对我们来说是容易的。

2. 情态动词should的用法

should是情态动词,它的基本用法是必须和其他动词一起构成谓语。意为”应该……”。

should(应当,应该)用于所有人称,表示劝告或建议。

eg.—I have a very bad cold. 我感冒很厉害。

—You should lie down and have a rest. 你应该躺下,多喝水。

3. maybe与maybe

(1)maybe是副词,译为“也许、可能”,相当于“perhaps”。如:Maybe he can answer the question. 也许他能回答那个问题。

He maybe is from the USA, too. 他可能也来自美国。

(2)may be中的may为情态动词,译为“可能是……”。如:

He may be from the USA, too. 他可能也来自美国。

She may be our English teacher. 她可能是我们的英语老师。

4.few、a few、little、a little的区别和联系:

(1)few / a few用来修饰可数名词,few表示否定意义,没有,几乎没有;a few表示肯定意义, 有几个。 例如:

He has few friends here, he feels lonely. 他这里没朋友,他感觉寂寞。

There are a few eggs in the basket. 篮子里有几个鸡蛋。

(2)little / a little用来修饰不可数名词,little表示否定意义,没有,几乎没有;a little 表示肯定意义,有一点儿。 例如:

There is little ink in my bottle. Can you give me a little ink?我的瓶子里没有墨水了,你能给我点儿墨水吗?

5. not…until 直到…(否定句) 才……,动词为短暂性或瞬间性动词。

She didn’t leave until we came.

He went shopping after he got up.

=He didn’t go shopping until /before he got up.

…until/till 直到……(肯定句)动词为延续性动词

We stayed here till/until 12 o’clock.

Unit2 I’ll help clean the city parks.

1. 短语动词小结

常见动词短语结构有下面几种:

(1)动词+副词 如:give up 放弃;turn off 关掉;stay up 熬夜

这种结构有时相当于及物动词,如果其宾语是代词,就必须放在动

词和副词之间,如果是名词,则既可插在动词和副词之间,也可放

在短语动词后。

(2)动词+介词 如:listen of 听;look at 看;belong to 属于

这种结构相当于及物动词,后面跟宾语。

(3)动词+副词+介词 如:come up with 提出,想出;run out of 用完,耗尽

(4)动词+名词+介词 如:take part in参加;catch hold of 抓住

2. each 每个,各自的,强调事物的个别情况,常与of 连用

every 每个,每一个的,一切的,有“全体”的意思不能与of 连用

3. help sb. (to) do 帮助某人做某事 help him (to) study

help sb. with sth. 帮助某人做某事 help him with English

help do 帮助做某事 help study

4. spend…doing… 花费…做…

I spent a day visiting Beijing.我花了一天的时间去参观北京。

spend… on sth. 花费…在…I spent 3 years on English.

5. join 参加 (指参加团体、组织) 如:join the Party 入党

take part in 参加 (指参加活动) 如:take part in sports meeting 参加运动会

6. run out 与 run out of

(1)run out (become used up). 其主语往往为物。如时间,食物,金钱,油等,本身就含有被动意义。

His money soon ran out. 他的钱很快就花光了。

Our time is running out. 我们剩下的时间不多了。

(2)run out of 主语为人,表示主动含义。

He is always running out of money before pay day. 他总是在发工资的日子还没有到就把钱花完了。

两者在一定条件下可以互换

如:The petrol is running out. 汽油快用完了= We are running out of petrol.

Our time is running out. 我们剩下的时间不多了。= We are running out of time.

7. work out

(1)结局,结果为

The strategies that he came up with worked out fine. 他提出的这个策略效果很好。

(2)算出,制订出,消耗完(精力等)

He never seems to be worked out. 他好像永远不会疲乏似的。

He worked out a plan. 他制订了一个计划。

I have worked out our total expenses. 我已经算出了我们总的费用。

8. hang out 闲荡 闲逛

I like to hang out at mall with my friends. 我喜欢和我的朋友一起去购物中心闲荡。

9. be able to do 能,会

be unable to do 不能,不会

10. for sure 确实如此,毫无疑问

You don’t have money. That’s for sure. 你没有钱,这是毫无疑问的。

11. fill… with… 使…充满… 用…填充…

She filled the bowl with water. 她用水填满碗。

12. hand out 分发 hand out bananas

give out 分发 give out sth to sb. 分….给某人

give up doing 放弃… give up smoking 放弃吸烟

give away 赠送 捐赠 give away money to kids

give sb. sth. 给某人某东西 give me money 给我钱

give sth. to sb. 给某人某东西 give money to me 给我线

13. help sb. out 帮助…做事,解决难题(摆脱困境)

I can’t work out this math problem. Please help me out. 我不能算出这道数学问题,请你帮我解决。

14. train n. 火车 v. 训练

train sb. to do. 训练某人做某事

She trains her dog to fetch things. 她训练她的狗去取东西。

15. at once == right away 立刻 马上 如:

Do it at once. 马上去做。

I’ll go there at once/ right away. 我马上去那里。

16. one day 有一天 (指将来/过去)

some day 有一天(指将来) 如:

One day I went to Beijing. 有一天我去了北京。

Some day I’ll go to Beijing. 有一天我将去北京。

Unit3 Could you please clean your room?

1. 关于 to 的短语总结have to do sth.不得不/必须做某事need to do sth.需要做某事

hate to do sth. 讨厌做某事like to do sth. 喜欢做某事

want to do sth. 想做某事love to do sth. 热爱做某事

forget to do sth. 忘记做某事start to do sth. 开始做某事

begin to do sth. 开始做某事ask sb to do sth. 请某人做某事

2. —Could you please clean your room?—Yes, sure. / Sorry, I can’t. I have to do my homework first.—Could I please use the car?

—Sure. / Certainly. / Of course./No, you can’t. I have to go out.在表示请求帮助或请求允许的疑问句中,常用 could 代替 can,以表示礼貌,委婉或不确定的语气,而 can 则不具备这些语气。这种情况下不能把 could 看作 can 的过去式。以上两句中用 could 是为了表示礼貌的请求。表示请求帮助或请求允许时,除了 can, could 之外,还可以用 may,句子的表达方式也各有不同,可以用不同的方式来表示同一个概念。例:

Could / Can / May I use your car for a day?作允答可以各种各样:如同意可以说 Yes,或 Sure 或 Certainly,还可说 Yes, (do) please.或 Of course. (you may / can). 或 That’s OK / all right.如果不同意,可以说 I’m sorry you can’t. 或 I’m really sorry, but I have to use it today. 要避免说 No, you can’t. 这样显得很不礼貌。否定回答通常用委婉语气。

Unit4 Why don’t you talk to your parents?

1. get

( 1 ) 买

get sth. for sb. = get sb. sth. 为某人买某物

Can you get some fruit for me when you go shopping ?

= Can you get me some fruit when you go shopping ?

( 2 ) 得到,到达

Where did you get the book?

When did you get the letter?

He got home late last night.

(3)使,让,get + 宾语 + 宾补 使某人/某物怎么样

Please get you coat clean.

Get your mouth closed.

get sb. to do sth. 使某人做某事

I got him to call Jim yesterday.

(4)( 逐渐) 变得……

The weather gets warmer and days get longer .

Why did the teacher get angry ?

2. how about/what about 后跟名词/代词/动词ing形式。

(1)向对方提出建议或请求

How about going out for a walk?

How about something to eat?

(2)向对方征求意见或看法

How about the TV play ?

How about buying the house now ?

( 3 ) 询问天气或身体情况

How about the weather in Hainan Island ?

How about your parents?Are they living with you ?

( 4 ) 谈话中承接上下文

I’m forty years old. How about you?

I’m from Beijing. How about you?

3. receive 收到

The girl was happy to receive many gifts on her birthday .

receive a letter from = get a letter from = heard from收到某人的信

I received a letter from my parents last Sunday .

= I got a letter from my parents last Sunday .

= I heard from my parents last Sunday .

accept 接受

He couldn’t accept our suggestions but our gifts.

She was very glad to receive the invitation.

I received an invitation to the party , but I refused to accept it .

4. a 6-year-old child 一个六岁的孩子

6-year-old 是由“数词 +名词 + 形容词 ” 构成的复合形容词,作前置定语,修饰后面的名词child。

“数词+名词+形容词”构成的复合形容词,中间的名词要用单数形式:

a five-year-old girl 一个五岁的女孩

a two-meter-long ruler 一把两米长的尺子

a ten-story-high building 一栋十层高的楼房

a two-inch-thick dictionary 一本两英寸厚的词典

5. too…to… 太……而不能 ……

too 后跟形容词或副词原形, to 后跟动词原形, 构成不定式,句子的主语与动词不定的主语不一时, 可以在动词不定式前加逻辑主语for sb。

He is too young to join the army ( 军队) . 他年纪太小,不能去参军。

The math problem is too difficult for me to work out . 这道数学题对我来说太难了,做不出。

too…to…可以与enough to和so…that…转换.

She is too young to do the work .

= She isn’t old enough to do the work .

Tom is too tired to walk any farther .

= Tom is so tired that he can’t walk any farther .

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